Elements are defined by how many protons they have. An element a million light years away that has 8 protons is still oxygen. Any element we haven't discovered/created simply has more protons than anything that's currently on the periodic table. We're up to triple digits there, so any element we've never seen before is going to be very dense/massive and complex.Originally Posted by [b
Simple things are building blocks for complex things. Believing there's hydrogen, helium, etc. all over the place isn't thinking-inside-the-box... it's just simple probabilities. Since we've seen all the simple elements, most life we encounter is probably going to be built out of things we recognize. Again, extraterrestrial doesn't automatically mean absolutely different. To people who don't recognize the implications of their existence, martian bacteria will probably look very boring. "It's a bacteria... so what?"
Probably not. I don't know what the estimate is but they believe the mass resulting from the Big Bang was finite. They say slightly more matter resulted than antimatter, and that alone implies the amount is finite because if they were infinite, you can't have one infinity that's "bigger" than another infinity (infinity+1=infinity). And the confusing part is, space itself resulted from the Big Bang, and is expanding as well. Things aren't expanding "into" space that was already there.Originally Posted by [b
There could be an infinite number of universes, however... I believe there are. And then you have to wonder what those universes might be "contained" in.
Black holes have a confusing name... they aren't automatically "holes". In some cases they could be (wormholes like you said)... but usually a black hole is allegedly just an ultra-massive singularity. Tons and tons and tons of matter squished into a tiny tiny space. I've never heard of a scientist saying a black hole defies the laws of physics... our model of physics just doesn't fully encompass it yet. The actual laws of physics are separate from our current understanding of the laws of physics. And any scientist who thinks our understanding of the laws of physics is complete is a laughably bad scientist.Originally Posted by [b
And time and space are two components of the same thing... space-time... they're always "converged". Time is manipulated by gravity, and ultra-massive things have lots of gravity.