The problems in identifying specimens of Spiranthes are centered around S. cernua, and are not the result of too much splitting in this group. The taxa that have been recently separated from S. cernua (S. casei, S. magnicamporum, and S. ochroleuca) are all distinct and invariable. both in morphology and in chromosome number. S. cernua, on the other hand, is extremely variable in morphology and chromosome number. Numerous polyploid and aneuploid races of S. cernua exist, and often appear radically different from "typical" S. cernua. Charles Sheviak (1982) has published a thorough and detailed examination of the S. cernua problem; anyone serious about Spiranthes taxonomy should consult this work.