Where's the line drawing??
N. campanulata traps mostly small flies and ants, along with the occasional beetle, cricket, or moth (Fig. 3). This prey-capture profile is typical for a species with small, yellow pitchers that are produced at or above canopy level (Moran 1996; Bonhomme et al. 2011). However, it is highly atypical for a species that has a reduced peristome and well-developed waxy zone. The small peristome/well-developed waxy zone character combination has been referred to in recent ecological studies as “dry type”. The pitchers of most Nepenthes species can be divided into two groups, called “wet type” and “dry type” (Bauer et al. 2012; Moran et al. 2013). Wet type pitchers tend to have a broad peristome and a reduced (or no) waxy zone. The peristome relies on moisture to function, and so species with “wet type” pitchers are confined to habitats that are almost permanently moist. By contrast, dry type pitchers have narrower peristomes and welldeveloped waxy zones. While the peristomes of dry type pitchers are less effective than those of wet type ones, the waxy zone remains effective even if the weather is dry. Furthermore, the wax crystals are better at retaining water than glandular surfaces, so dry type pitchers are more efficient in places where occasional, short term
water deficiencies occur. One thing that is intriguing about the prey caught by N. campanulata pitchers is that dry type pitchers are thought to be more effective Figure 3: Histogram showing the proportional composition of arthropod prey taxa in Nepenthes campanulata pitchers.Volume 43 March 2014 11 at trapping crawling prey, such as ants, and less effective at trapping flying prey, such as small flies "